Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical technique originally developed for intuitive prosthetic control. The technique also has been gaining acceptance as a treatment for residual and phantom limb pain.[1]

Learn more about TMR for post-amputation pain at the resources below.


Surgical Management of Peripheral Nerve Pain

Gregory Dumanian, MD

A virtual, interactive TMR journal article review led by author Gregory Dumanian, MD. Webcast April 21, 2020.

Adding TMR to Your Practice

Kyle R. Eberlin, MD, Bryan J. Loeffler, MD and Anthony Echo, MD

A webinar on the consideration and best practices for adding TMR to your surgical practice. Webcast January 28, 2020.

TMR Surgical Techniques

Ian Valerio, MD

A virtual, interactive TMR journal article review led by author Ian Valerio, MD. Webcast May 27, 2020.

Course: TMR Cadaveric BKA Dissection

Gregory Dumanian, MD

In this free course, Dr. Dumanian walks you through a TMR cadaveric below-the-knee dissection.


Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Symptomatic Neuroma of Deep Peroneal Nerve After Below the Knee Amputation

Stephen J. Kovach, MD, April, 2020

Reviewing Use of Checkpoint in Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Surgery

Ian Valerio, April 2018

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2020;8(3):e2689. Published 2020 Mar 25. Doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000002689

Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Combined with a Vascularized Pedicled Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface

Valerio I, Schulz SA, West J, Westenberg RF, Eberlin KR

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2020;8(4):e2750. Published 2020 Apr 23. doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000002750

A Single Incision Anterior Approach for Transhumeral Amputation Targeted Muscle Reinnervation

Daly MC, He JJ, Ponton RP, Ko JH, Valerio IL, Eberlin KR

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2020;10.1097/CORR.0000000000001323. doi:10.1097/CORR.0000000000001323

Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Improves Residual Limb Pain, Phantom Limb Pain, and Limb Function: A Prospective Study of 33 Major Limb Amputees

Mioton LM, Dumanian GA, Shah N, Qiu CS, Ertl WJ, Potter BK, Souza JM, Valerio IL, Ko JH, Jordan SW

J Surg Oncol. 2019;120(3):348-358. doi:10.1002/jso.25586

Targeted Muscle Reinnervation in Oncologic Amputees:
Early Experience of a Novel Institutional Protocol

Alexander JH, Jordan SW, West J M, Compston A, Fugitt J, Bowen JB, Dumanian G A, Pollock R, Mayerson JL, Scharschmidt TJ, Valerio IL


Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR): Current Research and Clinical Applications

This abstract compendium and bibliography compiles the latest research and clinical evidence supporting TMR for treatment of nerve pain.


Learn how the Checkpoint Nerve Stimulator can be used to identify motor nerves and muscle during TMR.

1. Eberlin KR, Ducic I. Surgical Algorithm for Neuroma Management: A Changing Treatment Paradigm. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2018;6(10):e1952. Published 2018 Oct 16. doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000001952

The Checkpoint® Nerve Stimulator can be used to identify motor nerves and muscle during TMR and other procedures.