• Albert Chi
    • Sawyer Smith
    • Isaac Womack
    • Robert Armiger


    Purpose of review

    This review focuses on the cutting edge of surgery and technologies following upper extremity loss. A range of technologies will be reviewed with the common theme of bionics. Recent findings Traditional surgical amputation techniques are antiquated, especially with commercially advanced prosthetic technologies available following Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) surgery for the upper extremity. TMR should be standard of care not only for its benefits for advanced prosthetic control but also for its improvement in neuroma pain and prevention of neuroma formation. Current investigations of different technologies hold a bionic solution to arm restoration.


    Many technologies currently exist in different phases of clinical research while others are immediately available and should be standard of care following upper extremity amputation. It is important that the healthcare community understands developing and available technology in the area of bionics and its application to upper extremity prosthetics.