CHITOSAN KEY PROPERTIES

Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these promising characteristics.

SUPPORTS AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ENVIRONMENT

  • As a polysaccharide, chitosan is recognized naturally by the body. A low Degree of Acetylation (DA<10%) has been shown to induce an M2 anti-inflammatory macrophage response.1

INHIBITS FIBROBLAST PROLIFERATION AND INFILTRATION

  • Fibroblasts have been shown to not proliferate on chitosan films. This behavior may be related to their high adhesion to the material which would inhibit their growth.2

SUPPORTS TISSUE HEALING

  • Low DA chitosan films have been shown to favor Schwann cell invasion and proliferation with appropriate cytoskeletal morphology.3,5

HAS ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES

  • Preclinical studies have shown that chitosan exhibits antimicrobial activity.4

IS BIODEGRADABLE

  • A natural biodegradable biopolymer, chitosan undergoes enzymatic degradation into recognizable, biocompatible components. The low DA composition contributes to mechanical stability, neutral pH, and degradation products that have been shown to be beneficial to tissue healing.5,6

FULLY RESORBS

  • Chitosan is primarily depolymerized by lysozyme, leading to full resorption. The degradation products of chitosan are bio-friendly (glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and chitooligosaccharides),5 as well as supportive throughout the healing process.7

    References

      1. Vasconcelos DP, Fonseca AC, Costa M, Amaral IF, Barbosa MA, Águas AP, Barbosa JN. Macrophage polarization following chitosan implantation. Biomaterials. 2013;34(38):9952-9959.
      2. Chatelet C, Damour O, Domard A. Influence of the degree of acetylation on some biological properties of chitosan films. Biomaterials. 2001;22(3):261-268.
      3. Carvalho CR, López-Cebral R, Silva-Correia J, Silva JM, Mano JF, Silva TH, Freier T, Reis RL, Oliveira JM. Investigation of cell adhesion in chitosan membranes for peripheral nerve regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017;71:1122-1134.
      4. Ke CL, Deng FS, Chuang CY, Lin CH. Antimicrobial actions and applications of chitosan. Polymers (Basel). 2021 Mar 15;13(6):904.
      5. Matica A. Biodegradability of chitosan-based products. New Front Chem. 2017;26:75-86.
      6. Suyeon Kim, “Competitive Biological Activities of Chitosan and Its Derivatives: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anticancer, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities”, International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2018, Article ID 1708172, 13 pages, 2018.
      7. Wang Y, Zhao Y, Sun C, Hu W, Zhao J, Li G, Zhang L, Liu M, Liu Y, Ding F, Yang Y, Gu X. Chitosan Degradation Products Promote Nerve Regeneration by Stimulating Schwann Cell Proliferation via miR-27a/FOXO1 Axis. Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Jan;53(1):28-39.